This study uses data from IALS and ALL to explore how Canada’s stock of literacy skill evolved over the nine year period from 1994 to 2003. It employs a synthetic cohort analysis to document net skill change for various demographic groups for Canada and the provinces and to explore the individual characteristics that influence whether a particular group has gained or lost skill on average over the nine year reference period.
The analysis reveals the presence of significant literacy skill loss in adulthood, loss that would seem to be concentrated in adults from lower socio- economic backgrounds. Given the influence that literacy skill appears to exert upon individual labour market success and the overall performance of the economy understanding what underlies the loss and what, if anything, should be done by individuals, institutions or governments to slow or reverse the process, should be a priority.
Women's Education des femmes, Autumn 1990 - Vol. 8, No. 2
Authors: Sharon Harold
In this article, the author discusses the growing number of aging women in Canada and the lack of educational opportunities available for this group. Aging women are still the "invisible majority" of elderly in Canada, despite their increasing numbers. Current educational opportunities for older women are almost nonexistent. Older women have been socialized to have low expectations of what is available to them in the way of educational programming. And older women often have low expectations of themselves - they experience feelings of being "too old", "too dumb" or of it being "too late".
Lessons in Learning – June 26, 2008
Authors: Canadian Council on Learning (CCL)
Taking a “gap year” between high school and postsecondary education is a common practice in the United Kingdom and Australia, but less common in Canada. “Gappers” choose to delay enrolment for any of a number of reasons, including the need to earn money to pay for further studies or a desire to travel.
The authors of this paper note that delaying postsecondary enrolment carries both risks and benefits in terms of academic achievement and potential earnings. It is clear, however, that earning a post-secondary credential is beneficial, whether or not students delay their initial enrolment.
Current practices in the United Kingdom and Australia offer lessons for Canada in how to encourage gappers to return to their studies. For example, one financial services company in the United Kingdom has established a program that allows high school graduates to take a gap year that includes nine months of paid employment with the company; a post-employment bursary; and annual bursaries during the student’s university studies.
This is the report on the conference " Gathering Voices: Building an Alliance for Family Literacy," which was held October 26 - 28, 2000, at the Battery Hotel in St. John's. Over 195 people attended the conference, including participants from literacy development programs, family resource centres, daycare centres, Health and Community Services, schools and school boards, the Department of Education and parents. Events included a PreConference Workshop "Roots of Empathy," two Keynote addresses (Mary Gordon and Elizabeth Hanson), 12 workshops, the launch of two publications, and exhibits displaying programs and resources.
A Review of the State of the Field of Adult Learning
Series: State of the Field Report
This report, commissioned by the Canadian Council on Learning (CCL), is part of a series examining aspects of adult learning in Canada.
The authors searched databases, websites, print literature and journals, and conference proceedings, and sent emails to researchers in the field of adult education and women. With some exceptions, the search was limited to the 10-year period leading up to 2006.
Based on their research, the authors identified three areas of strength: the growing body of knowledge in the areas of feminist theory, immigrant women, workplace education, technology and education, and community development and adult education; the relevance of much research to community-based agendas; and the trend toward more concentrated research programs, which bring together and direct the research agendas in Canada.
The document also outlines five major challenges and new directions: gaps in the knowledge base, especially regarding Aboriginal peoples, disabilities, rural women, and sexual identity; the de-politicization of the term gender to the point where it is difficult to identify it as a primary category of analysis; the lack of connection between researchers and policy-makers; the need to encourage further collaboration with the community; and the need to develop and maintain a centralized website that could bring together all the resources, sites, centres, and information on gender and education.
Women's Education des femmes, Spring 1996 - Vol. 12, No. 1
Authors: Meredith Kimball
In this article, the author examines gender differences in achievement among mathematics students, and the importance of changing negative perceptions.
Lessons in Learning - November 1, 2007
Series: Lessons in Learning
Authors: Canadian Council on Learning (CCL)
While growing numbers of Canadian women are successfully pursuing postsecondary studies, there is still a large gender gap in science-related occupations and a gender-based wage gap.
Research suggests that there is no gender difference between girls and boys when in comes to ability and aptitude for science, the authors note. These findings suggest that cultural or environmental factors, rather than biological ones, affect girls’ interests and career choices.
Parents may inadvertently influence girls’ lack of interest in science by responding differently to sons and daughters. They may be more likely to explain scientific concepts to sons than to daughters, or may be more inclined to buy science materials like chemistry sets or microscopes for boys rather than girls.
The authors offer a number of suggestions for parents, including encouraging daughters to take science courses in high school; providing opportunities for girls to meet women scientists; and watching science-related television programs with their children.
They also describe a number of programs designed to encourage interest in the sciences. Some are open to both girls and boys, while others are specifically for girls.
Improving Access to Capital by Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
This report of the Task Force on Access to Capital of the Canadian Labour Market and Productivity Centre discusses and makes recommendations concerning financing barriers relevant to small and medium-sized enterprises in Canada. The work of the Task Force builds on recommendations made by the CLMPC’s Economic Restructuring Committee in their 1993 report, Canada: Meeting the Challenge of Change.
Over the past decade, small and medium-sized firms have made major contributions to net job creation. Despite this fact, it is these companies, and especially the youngest among them, that encounter significant difficulties seeking external capital. The Task Force feels, further, that issues related to debt capital have tended to overshadow discussion of equity sources.
A central message of the Task Force is that equity capital should be given heightened emphasis in Canadian investment and financing, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME’s). Within the equity capital framework, there is a further need to explore in more detail the role and contributions of the relatively new labour-sponsored investment funds.
This report provides maps of adult literacy skills for each of Canada’s provinces and territories and for its three largest cities, based on data from the 2001 Canadian Census, and from the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS), conducted by Statistics Canada and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
The first section of the report outlines the mapping technique used for the project. Developed by the Canadian Research Institute for Social Policy (CRISP), the mapping technique’s aim is to estimate a score for an outcome variable for all Canadian citizens, based on the best available information for each individual, and then display the resulting scores on provincial or local area maps.
In the second section, the authors explain the five literacy levels, while in the third section, they provide pointers for interpreting the maps.
The report uses three basic types of maps; maps showing the percentage of adults at particular levels of prose literacy; maps showing the number of adults at each level of prose literacy; and maps showing average scores on the prose literacy test.
This work represents the first attempt to map social outcomes on a large scale using Statistics Canada’s survey data, the authors note. It opens up possibilities for using data to map other social outcomes, including those related to health and early childhood.
Women's Education des femmes, Spring 1994 - Vol. 11, No. 1
Authors: Marie Barton
A research project was undertaken by the author, with the assistance of a group of women, adult students from a Personal Life Management course the author was facilitating. The purpose of the research project, with the help of the group of women, was to develop a list of strategies, or anything that would be helpful to teachers who are aware of violence in the lives of children they teach, but unsure as to what, if anything, they could offer.
The group of women made suggestions on what teachers could do. In this article, three of these suggestions are discussed: teacher training, continuing of contact with personnel, and women's studies courses in secondary school.