There are numerous definitions of literacy but relatively few data on the views of adult learners in literacy programs regarding literacy and even fewer on the views of adult literacy instructors. This study examined the views of 94 learners and 31 teachers regarding literacy as well as the actual classroom experiences of a subgroup of learners. Results showed that learners tended to view literacy from a fundamental perspective but entered programs for job-related reasons. Their teachers viewed literacy from a functional perspective but presented programs that were fundamental in nature. Emancipatory views were reflected to a very limited extent in either views of literacy or actual classroom experiences.